South Broadway Street
#209 South Broadway Street: Bradley House, 1871
In 1928 Dr. Will Nichols bought the Samuel H. Bradley house at 60 South Public Square, built in 1871, and moved the house to the south adjacent lot at 209 South Broadway Street. Since 1978, the house has been renovated into Professional and Law Offices.
Dr. Will A. Nichols Rental Property, (1928-1958)
Dr. Will A. Nichols and Eurie S. Nichols Private Residence, (1958 to 1967)
Eurie Stanbery Nichols Private Residence (1967-1981)
Jeffrey Bramley, Attorney, (1979-1988)
P. C. Spink, Attorney, (1988-1991)
Robert Rosenfeld, Attorney, (1991-1994)
Medina County Title Agency, (1991-1995)
Lee Skidmore, Attorney, (1991-1995)
James F. Ciccolini, Attorney, (1996-2017)
Allstate Insurance Company Sales Offices, (1997-2000)
James Roberts Insurance Agency, (1997-2000)
Sunny Herron, Attorney, (1998-2003)
David Gedrock, Attorney, (1998-2017)
Advise Helpline, (2004-2008)
Medina County Title Agency, (2005-2010)
Lee Skidmore, Attorney, (2005-2010)
MDS Builders, Inc. (2007-2017)
Freedom Insurance, (2011-2012)
Monarca Language Services, (2017-Present)
#210 South Broadway Street: King House,-1833, Sylvester Library,-1907, Medina County District Library,-1933
David King Residence, (1834-1867)
1. In the early 1800’s Medina looked vastly different than it does today. One glaring difference is the square. Today, 210 South Broadway Street is home to Medina’s beautiful public library. But in the 1800’s, it was home to something very different. It’s a house, in fact. But not just any house, this was a mansion, even by today’s standards.
2. Built in 1833 by a wealthy merchant named David King, the house was modeled after America’s very own White House. David King was one of the original investors in the Connecticut Land Company, which owned all the land in the Western Reserve. His land investments were in Medina, which is why he came to Medina, already with an extreme amount of wealth. While he lived here, he sold pork and liquor out of the South West corner of the square, which is today home to the popular frozen yogurt establishment, Lemonberry. On top of all of this, he was also, in a way, one of Medina’s first banks, by loaning out money here and there to people who needed it.
Albert R. Whiteside Residence, (1867-1885)
1. A. R. Whiteside came to Medina Village in 1830 from Pennsylvania and was a Dealer in stationary, wall paper and window shades and his store was located one door east of the Phoenix Block in 1848.
2 A. R. Whiteside assumed the duties of the first Village Fire Warden in 1871 and was responsible for the first cisterns to be dug around the Uptown Park.
John Frizzell Residence, (1885-1895)
Fremont O. Phillips Residence, (1895-1905)
1. In 1895 the house was purchased by Fremont O. Phillips, a leading citizen in the village. A self-made man, Phillips started out as a teacher and eventually became a lawyer, mayor of the village, U.S. Congressman and probate judge.
2. In 1905, Phillips decided to leave the Square — but not necessarily his beautiful, stately home. His reasons are not known. Perhaps the Square had gotten too noisy and commercial. At any rate, he sold the prime lot to a local cattle dealer, Franklin Sylvester, who wanted to achieve immortality by building a library for Medina that would bear his name.
3. Phillips then got busy and moved his entire household — locks stock and mansion. “The back part was cut first and taken onto North Broadway St. where it was turned and headed north. The main part, 72 feet across, was taken and in the same way it was turned into the street. Small rollers on railroad track ties were used to move the building. In five days’ time, it was up and on a new foundation.”
4. The house arrived in its new location — a dirt road in what was still a rural area — without any damage. In fact, the family continued to live in it during the move. The only complaint came from the youngest member of the family, Tom, who claimed that he “lost his marbles.”
5. The house was then sold to a man named Edward Deibel, who owned it for about 50 years, into the 1960’s.
6. Unfortunately, come the 1990’s the house was embarrassingly neglected by the man who owned it after Deibel. It had detreated so badly during the time that the entire front of the house almost literally fell off.
7. Thankfully, Ed Deibel had a grandson who took particular interest in saving this house. After the owner let it almost fall apart, it was put up for auction, and bought by Deibel’s grandson, Jim Gowe, who now owns the house and has restored to its former glory.
8. Driving on North Broadway, this house is even by today's standards, massive. You cannot even see the house's "L" shape from the street. You probably would not even guess its age, considering that it is an astounding 181 years old. Today, it looks just as good, if not better, than it did when it was brand new, thanks to renovations done by its owner, Jim Gowe.
9. The Fremont O Phillips House on North Broadway Street as it appears in 2016, 112 years after it's move from Public Square.
Medina Library Location History: 1877-1907
Barnard Block, 105 West Liberty Street, (1877-1878)
1. A Medina Circulating Library Association was formed. Members paid dues and then were able to check out books.
Commercial Block, 8 Public Square, (1878-1885)
1. Miss Meroa Andrews, besides carrying on her jewelry store, stored the library books and acted as Librarian at a salary of $20 a year.
Albro Block, 13 West-side Public Square: (1886-90)
1. Herbert H. Brainard was elected the first President of the Medina Circulating Library Association in 1878, perhaps because he agreed to store the seventy library books in his jewelry store.
Albro Block, 32.5 West Public Square, (1890-1898)
1. W. H. Albro, Druggist, provided a reading room rent free on the second floor to be used as a library.
Free Church Annex, 103 North Public Square, (1899-1900)
1. A small building is bought in 1899 by the Library Association to house the library.
2. F. M Branch purchased the lot and building in 1907 for $1.500.
Barnard Block, 105.5 West Liberty Street, (1900-1907)
1. Medina Library Association moves to a room rented from Judge Barnard in 1900.
2. Librarian Miss Eva Johnson reports an average of 27 visits a day in 1905.
3. 1904-The Librarian’s salary increased to $3 a week and the library is to be open from 1:30-5 p.m.
Franklin Sylvester Library, (1905-1907)
1. Franklin Sylvester gives $10,000 for a public library and asks the trustees to make it a free public library.
2. Construction began on the new library at 210 South Broadway Street in 1905 and dedication was held on August 30, 1907
Franklin Sylvester Library, (1907-1933)
1. In 1933 Sylvester Library became a county wide public library and extended borrowing privileges to all of Medina County Residents.
Medina County District Library (1933-1976)
1. In 1976 Dr. Mansell’s residence was razed and the size of the library was doubled.
1. Renovations have taken place in 1958, 1976 and 2008 to improve and enlarge the library facilities.
2. In 2005 a major expansion project was began and the library was enlarged to its existing size.
3. 2007 was the 100th Anniversary of the Franklin Sylvester/Medina County District Library.
#212 South Broadway Street: Mansell House
Private Residence, (Prior-1956)
R. L. Mansell, MD, Residence and Medical Offices, (1957-1976)
Mansell property was purchased by the Medina County District Library in 1976.
#213-215-219 South Broadway Street: Effinger and Pan
#213, Helen Effinger Residence, (1940-1959)
1. In 1959 the Effinger house was razed to provide a private parking lot for Medina County Gazette and Nichols Dentistry customers.
#215, George and Stella Pandur rental property, (Prior to 1969)
#219, George and Stella Pandur residence, (Prior to 1969)
1. The Pandur properties were razed to provide an expansion to the private parking lot to the north for Uptown Merchant use in late 1960’s.
#218 South Court Street: Mellert House
George Mellert Residence, (1940-1976)
Mellert property was purchased by the Medina County District Library in 1976.
#224 South Broadway Street: Disciple Church-1877, First Christian Church-1924
First Christian Church of Medina or Disciple Church, (1877-2003)
Evangelist Thomas D. Gavin, (1877-1878)
1. Organized in 1877 by Evangelist Thomas D. Garvin, incorporated in 1878, the congregation met for three years in the Union Hail, Phoenix Hail, and Court House and in the Congregational and Baptist Churches.
Reverend James H. Garvin, (1878-1884)
1. The old framed Disciple Church which stood on the site of the present church was built and dedicated in 1880 at a cost of $3,500 without indebtedness on the current lot. It was at the time the best church building in town until the Congregational Church built a larger and costlier one 1883. The lot was purchased at a price of $500, while the pews, which are still being used, were carved by hand by Ira and Floyd Bennett.
2. Dillon P. Clark was the Medina architect of The Disciple's meeting house in 1880. And it was frescoed by Mr. Kimmer of Cleveland.
3. The building was dedicated with great ceremony by T. D. Garvin, of Columbus, the founder of Wilmington College in Ohio. An Interesting incident connected with the dedication was recalled when a beam bearing the name of James A. Garfield, who was 20th president of the United States in 1881 was found when the building was torn down in 1923. Garfield a Disciple minister before entering politics was invited to attend the dedication but, was unable to attend because of the press of business in Washington. However, at about this time he did pass through Medina by train, and his proximity must have prompted one of the workmen to inscribe his name upon the piece of timber.
Reverent Brighton Newton Tanner, (1903-1908)
1. The Disciple Church has a new metal ceiling by Oatman Brothers Hardware and varnished woodwork and seats with painted walls in 1904.
Reverent Vernon S. Goodale. (1915-1920)
1. Rev. Vernon S. Goodale baptized children in a building called the “Mengus Temple” that sat just south of the Disciple Church on South Broadway Street near where Garfield School was built in 1911.
Reverent W. R. Moffatt, (1920-1924)
1. In 1923, the old church was moved to 570 South Court Street and a brick structure was erected for $30,000 in the cruciform, colonial style exterior and dedicated in 1924.
2. Architect Paul Tresler Cahill of Fulton, Taylor and Cahill of Cleveland designed the red brick church with a slate roof and sandstone trim.
Reverent Harry Beard, (1949-1957) and Reverent Ray Bosh, (1957-1960)
1. In 1957, a new educational wing with class rooms and offices was added, bringing the building to the current size.
2. In 1957 the Church constitution was adopted and the name was changed from the Disciple Church to the First Christian Church of Medina.
Reverent Harold E. Simmons, (1960-1967)
1. During the Disciple's early history, settled pastorates were unusual, for ministers seldom stayed more than a year or two in one church. Nineteen ministers served the church from 1877 to 1937, but only five ministers in the following 3 years to 1967
2. In 2003, a new much larger church was built at 4797 Sharon-Copley Road in Montville Township to serve a growing congregation.
Medina County Performing Arts Foundation, (2002-2009)
Project Learn, (2004-2009)
Crosspointe Community Church, (2007-2010)
Fountain of Grace Church (2010-2013)
Medina Bible Church, (2017-Present)
Evolve Academy of Medina City Schools, (2017-Present)
8#225 South Broadway Street: Swift House,-1917, Bagley House,-1938
Ella Ritz Swift Residence, (1917-1937)
Dudley and Iola Jane Bagley Private Residence, (1938-1993)
White Hill House Antiques, (1994-1995)
Mary R. Kovack, Attorney, (1999-2001)
Ralph Jocke, Attorney, (2002-2003)
#225 combined with #231 in 2004.
#229 South Broadway Street: Berry House
Thurston and J. E. Berry Private Residence, (1940-1997)
Gina Sisler, (1999-2000)
Ralph Joke, (2001-2008)
Matthew Sweeney, (2004-2011)
#229 was combined with #225 and #231 in 2012.
#231 South Broadway Street: Claggett House,-1940
Claggett Private Residence, (1940-1990)
Christopher J, Collier, Attorney. (1991-1993)
Edmond Bowers, Attorney, (1991-1995)
# Prudence Spink. Attorney, (1991-1998)
Ralph E. Joke, Attorney, (1991-2017)
Patricia A. Walker, Attorney, (1991-2017)
Ian S. Haberman, Attorney, (1994-1995)
Michael Pophal, Attorney, (1995-1999)
David R. Porcio, Attorney, (1997-1999)
Daniel Wasil, (2000-2015)
Christopher Parmelee, (2000-2017)
Nancy Reeves, (2001-2017)
Amanda Dillon, Attorney, (2003-2008)
Patricia Kramer, Attorney, (2003-2008)
Marcella Louke, (2006-2008)
Robert Maag Jr. Attorney, (2006-2017)
Walker and Jocke, Patricia Walker and Ralph E. Jocke, Attorney's, (2000-2018)
#234-250 South Broadway Street: Garfield and Lincoln Bldgs.
Medina Village Schools, (1854–1871)
Center Union School. — North east corner of South Broadway Street and East Smith Road, J. McCormick, Principal, Miss Ellen Warner, Assistant.
East Primary School.— South east corner of Harmony (East Alley) between East Liberty Street and East Washington Street, Miss Hattie Loring, Teacher.
1. W. H. Sipher was born in 1859 and attended the East Primary school in 1866.
2. In 1872, Dillon Clark will convert the East schoolhouse into a fine new home.
3. In 1874, East Primary school bought by Chamberlain and converted into a cottage for L.F. Fassett.
Center Primary School. — North west corner of South Broadway Street and East Smith Road, Miss Anna Sweet, Teacher.
1. Previous to the erection of Lincoln school in 1871, the high school and some intermediate grades were housed in Center Primary School, what is now the Stuart Hamilton residence.
2. In 1895, the old Center Primary School house at corner of South Broadway and East Smith was moved up the street and turned into a residence by George W. Rickard, George W. Rickard died at his home in 1921.
South Primary School.— South side of East Lafayette Road (Harrisville Road), between South Court Street and South Broadway Street, Miss Reliance Babcock, Teacher.
1. The only buildings on the east side of South Court to Wadsworth Road were a schoolhouse and the Methodist Church and Dan Ainsworth’s pasture. D.A. lived in S. B. Woodward house on west side of South Court Street and had a livery stable and stage route in the 1860s.
North Intermediate School.— South side of North Street between North Broadway Street and North Court Street, Miss A. Blakeslee, Teacher.
Normal School,-- North side of Lafayette Road (Harrisville Road) between South Court Street and South Broadway Street, S. G. Barnard, Principal.
1. In 1854, the school house where Caswell and Gunkleman wagon shop now stands was a remodeled Methodist Church with pews as seats and was directly across street from the present site of the South Primary school.
2. In 1871, the old Center Union School building was moved to become the new Norman School Boarding Hall.
Lincoln High School Building, (1871-1924)
1. Medina Gazette Editorial-1870: "There is no place in the state of Ohio of the same population where the taxes are as low as in the village of Medina. We have a population of from 1,500 to 2,000 people, who are among the best people in Ohio. Our corporation taxes for the past year have been only one mill on the dollar. Where is there a parallel to this in the state of Ohio? It is true that by reason of three bridges that the corporation had to build, the taxes were not quite sufficient to meet all the expenses, but the debt of the village on the first Monday in March, 1870, was only $155.74. Who, with these facts before them, will say, that the people of this village can't build a school house worth $20,000. The taxable Property on the duplicate for the village is about 3350,000, and under the new assessment will be $500,000."
2. Dr. S. J. Smith and Mrs. L. Bingham sold lots for $1080 to Board of Education opposite centralized school for a new High School in 1871. F. J. Wheatly bought the old schoolhouse.
3. A new 2 story, brick High School was built by John Rounds Company for $14,000 with 61 windows, $20,000 of iron and a tin roof built by Sanders and Sturgis in 1871. Bricks were made at the Samuel Hale brick works 4 miles west on Smith Road.
4. The schoolhouse bell was an old bell from the Medina County Court House.
5. The Medina School Board bought the E. B. Spritzer property just east of the of the High School and barn in 1910 for future athletic field.
Lincoln Grade School Building, (1924-1949)
School Superintendents: W. R. Comings, (1874-1882), S. H. Herriman, (1882-1886), Judge J. B. Kennan, (1886-1908), C. C. Carlton, (1908-1912), W. S. Edmunds, (1912-1917), W. E. Conkle, (1917-1914)
1. High School age students were transferred to the new High School on North Broadway Street in 1924 and Lincoln School became a grade school only.
2. In 1949, Lincoln Grade School was demolished to make way for a new building to be attached to the present Garfield Grade School at a cost of $550,000 to provide for an expanded Elementary School facility.
Garfield Grade School Building, (1912-1950)
1. Garfield School was built in 1911 with concrete foundation and brick walls. Excavation by W.J. Anderson, contractor E. E. Bope, Frank Gruninger architect and U. S. Rowe is construction foreman. The new Garfield Grade School opened in 1912.
1. The Medina County Historical Society must leave the Garfield building because the room is needed for a school library in 1942.
2. Garfield School provided educational facilities for 5th through 7th grade students for many years.
Garfield Elementary School Building, (1951-Present)
3. In 2017 present enrollment is 370 students from Kindergarten through 5th grade.
.Miss Ella Canavan (1878-1964) Her dedication to teaching and encouraging literacy is a legacy that lives on in Medina today.
1. Ella Canavan was born in 1878, presumably in Medina. She attended local school and was educated at Oberlin College until 1899, and then began teaching in 1900.
2. “Miss Ella” was unconditionally loved and respected in Medina and remains to this day, long after her death, an integral part of education in Medina.
3. “Miss Ella” was a friendly face to every student who walked the halls of the Lincoln Building and eventually of Garfield Elementary School. The echo of her ringing bell rang merrily across the playground to signal the start of class.
4. Her first "school" was at Ben Water’s house in Medina, and it was this school that established the private kindergarten system in the area, her first class having an enrollment of 30 children.
5. Miss Ella was the definition of passionate about teaching. She even taught for five years without pay before kindergarten was a part of the school district.
6. In 1905, kindergarten became part of the Medina City School District, and Miss Ella’s classes were moved to the Lincoln Building on South Broadway Street.
7. Because of crowded conditions, the Lincoln Building also serving all twelve grades at the time, “Miss Ella” moved her classes to the Odd Fellows building on Public Square, where she remained until the kindergarten was removed to the old Garfield School building in 1916, where Miss Ella would remain for the rest of her career.
“Miss Ella” leading her kindergarten class in the 1928 Dedication Day parade on East Liberty Street
8. She resigned in 1945 after 45 years of distinguished service in Medina.
9. On October 9th, 1960, the citizens of Medina gathered in celebration of the beloved Miss Ella Canavan, and the brand new school building that was about to be named after her. She already received a congratulatory letter from President Eisenhower in recognition of her 45 years of teaching, so this great honor was the icing on the cake for Miss Ella.
10. Ella Canavan Elementary school was dedicated in her honor, and she passed away shortly after on May 4, 1964.
#237 South Broadway Street:
K. J. Kolvereid Residence, (Prior to 1959)
Methodist Church Parking Lot (1959-Present)
#243-257 South Broadway Street: Nichols Bldg.-1963
Hauck Residence, (1904-1939)
1. Katherine and Ernest G. Hauck build their new residence and tailor shop in 1904.
H. G. Claggett Rental House, (1940-1959)
1. In 1959 the United Methodist Church purchased the property and raised the house for a church parking lot.
Hamilton Private Residence, (Prior to 1963)
1. Hamilton rental house was raised in preparing for the new Nichols Dentistry building in 1963.
Nichols Dentistry Office, Dr. Stanbery Nichols, Prop. (1963-1966)
1. Dr. Nichols moved here from 56 South Public Square in 1963 and built a new, modern Dentistry facility.
Nichols Dentistry Office, Dr. Stanbery Nichols and Dr. William Nichols, Props. (1966-1995)
Nichols Dentistry Office, Dr. William Nichols, Prop. (1995-2017)
Nichols Dentistry Office, Dr. William A. Nichols and Dr. Jennie Nichols, Props. (2003-2018)
1. A family dentistry that has served Medina clients in and around Public Square for over 135 years.
Dr. Abner, (1882-1921); Dr. Will, (1900-1968); Dr. Floyd Elmer, (1914-1918); Dr. Stanbery, (1936-1995); Dr. Will. A., (1966-2017) and Dr. Jennie, (2003-2017)
South Broadway Street at E. Smith Road looking North to East Washington Street
#320-325 South Broadway Street: Medina Water Works Bldg.- (1898-1911)
For a complete history of the Medina Village Water Works one would need to also review information at #126 West Friendship Street.
1. The village has been in the water business since 1882 when it’s first well and tiny pumping station went into operation on West Friendship Street. This plant was operated until shortly after completion of the larger plant on South Broadway Street.
2. By virtue of an ordinance passed by Council on Feb. 9, 1897, Burton J. Ashby, of Chicago, was authorized to furnish plans and to superintend construction of the new building at a cost of $395.
3. Before this building was constructed the waterworks was located on South Court Street near the present A. C. & Y. station. However, the water supply of the Shepard mill was of such high quality that it was decided to tap the same vein used by the mill, and the works was moved over next to it.
4. The source of supply for the new works was the one big well drilled at this location. William Smith, father- in-law of "Cap" Schuler, was superintendent.
5. On April 30, of the same year, bids for construction were let. George Gruninger was authorized to build the works for $1,157 while the Warren City Boiler Works made a low bid of $2,598 for the standpipe which stands behind the present waterworks office. At the same time bonds were issued for $8,000 to provide for the total construction of the new water system.
6. The pumping station, together with a 90-foot high 100,000 gallon water storage tank built on West Friendship Street cost the city fathers $8625.
7. In 1897, Wood water pipe was laid from the pumping station on South Broadway Street at Champion Creek north through Public Square to the new standpipe being built on West Friendship Street.
8. In 1897, N. H. McClure was mayor of Medina. Members of the council were W. E. Griesinger, George F. H:gh, J. A. Hobart, Lyman Oatman, E. R. Root and P. N. Yoder, Hiram Goodwin was clerk.
9. An interesting notation in the same minutes of the council in which Ashley was authorized to draw up plans reads as follows: "On motion the marshal was instructed to notify Mr. Reinhardt that hereafter in furnishing lunch for tramps; he shall furnish only a 10-cent lunch.
10. It was in 1907, 10 years after opening of the city's first modern water pumping and distribution system that a small plant was built on Co. Rd. 22 near Rock River, to supplement the downtown water supply and pumping facilities. Later the water works operation was moved out to Rocky River at its present location, the main building there having been constructed in 1916.
11. The Gazette and citizens, with pride and confidence in the village at the time were actively trying to bring in new industry. With completion of the new water system the year before in 1897, water from two deep wells, reaching a "copious vein," was being supplied to village residents and the fire department by a "handsome new brick pumping station" on South Broadway Street, having a capacity of 130 gallons a minute.
12. The eager Newsman, town booster and community optimist, in addition to promoting the village as something of a health spa, had high praise for the town's newly-completed waterworks system as one of the greatest. In a story in the same issue about the water system, the Gazette, in addition to praising the water's curative properties, pointed out that "no city or village of its size can boast of a finer water system for fighting fire than can Medina."
13. Medina has "pure and health- giving water from deep wells in abundant supply." The water is "remarkable for its great medicinal qualities."
14. "The high altitude of Medina and generally healthy surroundings make it an ideal spot for permanent residence and those seeking recovery from chronic ailment". So said a headline writer 66 years ago in a special industrial edition of the Medina County Gazette dated May 26, 1898.
15. The eager Newsman, town booster and community optimist, in addition to promoting the village as something of a health spa, had high praise for the town's newly-completed waterworks system as one of the greatest. In a story in the same issue about the water system, the Gazette, in addition to praising the water's curative properties, pointed out that "no city or village of its size can boast of a finer water system for fighting fire than can Medina."
Clement Concrete Company, William A. Clement, Ronald L. Clement and Eugene. M. Clement, props. (1911-1940)
1. Medina village council sold the old water works building on lot 63 near rail-road tracks to Willard Nugent for $1502.50 in 1909.
2. Willard Nugent sold his building and part-lot 63 to William A. Clement in 1911.
3. Clement Concrete Company, a construction and concrete works established by William A and sons R. L. and E. M. Clement in 1911 made more than 60,000 cement blocks per year.
4. Clement Concrete Company who employed 15 employees also built concrete building, roads and bridges.
5. The pound for stray cattle was a small fenced square of land near the site of Clement Concrete.
6. Pictured here is the old water-works on South Broadway Street at the A., C. & Y. tracks which is now occupied by the Clement Company. In the rear may be seen the old Shepard mill which burned to the ground a number of years ago (in 1917) and has since been rebuilt and is now used by the Farm Bureau.
Medina Supply Company, John Moxley and Elbridge Moxley, Props. (1941-1943)
1. Clement Company leased the business to John F. Moxley of Medina Supply Company after 30 yrs in business.
2. Brothers Elbridge R. and John F. Moxley founded Medina Supply Company in 1941 and operated their concrete business at the old Clement Concrete Company building on South Broadway Street.
3. Medina Supply Company owned by the Moxley brothers moved to the Paul Anderson barn in 1943.
Dowell Chemical Company Inc., Roy Martin, Manager, (1943-1957)
1. Dowell Chemical Company operated a fleet of trucks and did industrial equipment cleaning in large factories in Northern Ohio area.
Medina Supply Company Storage Building, John Moxley and Elbridge Moxley, Props.
1. Entrance to South Broadway Street a sealed access.